Helping Pests Survive?

Pest Management

Although it may seem contradictory, we actively work to make habitats for garden pests.

Integrated Pest Management

The first year we grew kale we had horrible aphid problems. People suggest spraying soap or blending cayenne peppers and spraying this liquid on the leaves, or using commercial insecticides. We took a different route. We did nothing. By doing nothing at all, we provided a valuable source of food to aphid’s natural predators. The next year, we had no aphid problems and we haven’t had any since!

This is called integrated pest management. It works better on small scales and when the pressure to produce perfect looking vegetables isn’t imposed on you. If you tried to “do nothing” on a commercial farm, you’d go out of business. But on small home scales the best pest defence is plant diverse integrated polycultures (a lot of different plants in close proximity) and provide lots of habitat for predators. If you mostly leave this system alone, the pests and predators will find a natural equilibrium. You may lose some of your vegetables to pests, but you likely won’t lose all of your vegetables.

We much prefer to build natural ecosystems and work with nature instead of creating more work for ourselves.

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    December 12, 2022

    Mimicking how a forest works, we aim to produce food using woody perennials and agroforestry principles. Functioning food forests have been discovered that are over 150 years old.

    Swales are ditches dug on contour that collect water, spread it out and let it slowly infiltrate into the soil where it can help rejuvenate aquifers and moisten soils.

    We farm red wriggler worms to harvest their castings as a soil amendment.

    Cover cropping is the practise of growing a variety of plants and cutting them (or grazing animals on them) and letting them decompose to build soil. This is the #1 most important strategy for generating fertility without external inputs.

Hugelkultur

Logs, sticks and woody debris piled up and covered with soil to make a garden bed that barely requires watering and is constantly breaking down and building soil.

Hugelkultur, also known as “hill culture” or “mound culture,” is a sustainable gardening technique that involves building raised beds using woody debris such as logs, branches, and twigs. This method of gardening has a number of benefits, including increased water retention, improved soil structure, and the ability to use materials that would otherwise be discarded.

One of the main benefits of hugelkultur is its ability to improve soil structure and fertility. As the woody debris decomposes, it releases nutrients and creates a network of air pockets that improve drainage and water retention. This can be particularly beneficial in areas with poor soil or dry climates.

Another advantage of hugelkultur is that it allows us to use logs and woody debris that would otherwise be useless to us. Rather than discarding these materials, we can repurpose them to create raised beds that will support healthy plant growth. This not only helps to reduce waste, but also provides an opportunity to recycle these materials and give them a new purpose.

To create a hugelkultur bed, you will need to gather a variety of woody debris and arrange it in a mound shape. The logs should be placed at the bottom, with branches and twigs on top. Once the bed is built, it can be covered with soil and plants can be added.

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Check out some other stuff we’ve been working on.

    It may sound contradictory, but we actively work to keep pests (slugs, aphids, hornworms, etc) alive! Why? By killing pests you’re removing beneficial insects’ food source. Less food = less beneficial insects. Less beneficial insects = more work you’ve given yourself spraying pesticides or manually removing them. Nature tends towards harmonious balance.

    Swales are ditches dug on contour that collect water, spread it out and let it slowly infiltrate into the soil where it can help rejuvenate aquifers and moisten soils.

Instead of having a ugly parking lot, we decided to build a kitchen garden close to the house so we could quickly gather ingredients for meals.

First Steps

We needed to cut some trees to ensure enough sunlight would reach the garden throughout the seasons. We used the firs and hemlock for firewood, and the cedars for fence posts. We burned all the branches to make a large quantity of relatively high quality biochar. Biochar sells for prohibitively high prices, so being able to create our own is extremely valuable.

Quite a lot of trees to process by hand!

Once the trees were felled, the biochar made and the logs stacked, work could begin on converting the compacted parking lot into a productive garden.

The parking lot before construction began.

But how to turn compacted sandy dirt into productive and biologically active soil?

A diverse blend of cover crops would work well as their roots could punctuate the tough dirt and start pumping carbon into the ground. But this would require at least a year (and with the level of degradation and compaction here probably more like 3-5 years) to become ready for planting.

The Solution: Hugelkultur

We opted instead to dig trenches 2 feet deep, 4 feet wide and about 24 feet long. We would then fill these trenches with hundreds of pounds of old stumps, logs and rotted woody debris, then cover them with organic matter (grass, manure, compost, soil, etc) and plant directly into the top.

Seb began digging by hand but quickly realized this would take ages and the opportunity cost was too high so we hired our friend Larry to come with his machine. Larry, an old-school organic farmer (well before organic was popular) was somewhat skeptical, but got the work done within a day.

Larry getting to work!

Once the trenches were dug and filled with the material it looked as if no work had even been done. But hiding under the tire tracks and dirt was thousands of strands of hyphae getting ready to colonize the vast amounts of woody material. Around this time Seb dug in new water lines so sprinklers and hoses could be run.

The Benefits of Hugelkultur

The woody material is covered by organic material and soil so it begins to collect water like a sponge. This reduces your watering needs considerably. Once the plant roots are established you almost never need to water because the wood becomes saturated.

The constant moist conditions also allow fungi to rapidly colonize the abundant woody food source. Fungal decomposition builds high quality soil, so the hugelkultur beds actually improve their soil quality every year for about 5-7 years with no added inputs or effort on your part at all.

Lots of wood also fosters mycorrhizal associations between certain fungi and plant roots. This fungal connection helps the plant roots collect nutrients and minerals from a far bigger area than would be possible with their roots alone. Through root educates the plants can also request specific nutrients or minerals at specific times. This is a much more fine-tuned nutrient application than even the most high precision conventional (or even certified organic) agriculture can achieve. In short, increasing the fungal component in soils in beneficial for many types of crops.

  1. Better water retention
  2. Promotes beneficial fungus
  3. Builds soil without any effort (once it’s built)
  4. Is significantly cheaper than buying soil or compost

Planting the beds

Once the trenches were filled with wood we piled on grass clippings, horse manure (we bought this from an organic farm near us, but we are aiming to stop all external inputs in the near future), homemade compost and forest soil. This created a fantastic planting medium that was biologically active (from the compost) and contained tons of organic matter for that life to feed on.

Planting begins. These tiny plants were started inside from seed.

Starting a kitchen garden with no fence is a risky proposition so building a fence became high priority. Seb began stripping the cedar logs, and learning to dig post holes. Most of the post holes were dug 2 feet deep. He also built a garden shed as a way to learn the skills needed to build his passive solar greenhouse (not completed yet).

A simple garden gate

With the plants in the ground, water lines dug, the fence built and copious amounts of straw mulch (inoculated with King Stropharia Wine Cap edible mushrooms) applied, the garden was ready to go.

2022 Results

This kitchen garden produced a large amount of food for us this season and was overall a much higher success than we were expecting. We picked about a half pound of perennial kale daily for 2 months at least. Carrots, beets, runner and bush beans, fennel, amaranth, swiss chard, sunflowers, dill, basil, thai basil, strawberries, chili peppers, leeks and more all prospered and suffered no nutrient deficiencies. Volunteer butternut squash produced around 45lbs. We planted asparagus and strawberries together and hopefully in 3-5 years the asparagus will produce a nice early spring vegetable. Pests were not a problem at all because the population of beneficial insects loved the spaces in the mulch and were able to increase their numbers greatly.

Next Steps

A passive solar greenhouse will be built on the south side of the garden. This will be used to start seeds, grow tomatoes, peppers and other hot season crops and maybe even to extend our growing season year round.

The paths will be planted with low growing white clover as a living mulch. Clover is a nitrogen fixer so it will provide the adjacent garden beds with nitrogen.

A large variety and number of flowers will be seeded all around the garden to increase pollinator populations, and to attract even more beneficial insects.

The fences will be planted to runner beans, and maybe grapes or some other vine/espaliered tree to take advantage of the nitrogen from the beans.

Before and After

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DIY

Building a Garden Shed

Using cedar posts harvested 30 feet away, this shed was built in 4 days for less than $340CAD.

This was built so that Seb could learn the skills required for the next project: a passive solar greenhouse using cob or wattle and daub. Everything in this build free except for some hardware and the plastic roof panels.

    March 16, 2022

    Using packed earth tires as a thermal mass, this simple coldframe extends our season by 1-2 months in the spring and fall.